Friday, April 04, 2014

inclusive fitness 50 years on...,


royalsociety | The cardinal problem of evolutionary biology is to explain adaptation, or the appearance of design in the living world [1,2]. Darwin [3] convincingly argued that the process of adaptation is driven by natural selection: those heritable variations—i.e. genes—that are associated with greater individual reproductive success are those that will tend to accumulate in natural populations. To the extent that the individual's genes are causally responsible for her improved fitness, natural selection leads to the individual appearing designed as if to maximize her fitness. Thus, Darwinism is a theory of both the process and the purpose of adaptation. 

However, correlations between an individual's genes and her fitness need not reflect a direct, causal relationship. For example, genes for altruism can be associated with greater fitness, despite the direct cost that they inflict on their bearer, if relatives interact as social partners. This is because an individual who carries genes for altruism will tend to have more altruistic social partners. That altruism can be favoured by natural selection suggests that the purpose of adaptation is not, in general, to maximize the individual's personal fitness [4]. 

Although Darwin [3] recognized the potential for such indirect effects to drive the evolution of social behaviours, discussing the logic of kin selection theory in connection with the adaptations of sterile insect workers, it was William D. Hamilton (figure 1), more than a century later, who developed these insights into a full mathematical theory. By quantifying the relative strengths of direct selection, acting via the individual's own reproduction, and indirect selection, acting via the reproduction of the individual's relatives, Hamilton [4] revealed the ultimate criterion that natural selection uses to judge the fate of genes. 

Hamilton's rule states that any trait—altruistic or otherwise—will be favoured by natural selection if and only if the sum of its direct and indirect fitness effects exceeds zero [47]. That is Graphic where –c is the impact that the trait has on the individual's own reproductive success, bi is its impact on the reproductive success of the individual's ith social partner and ri is the genetic relatedness of the two individuals. This mathematical partition of fitness effects underpins the kin selection approach to evolutionary biology [8]. The general principle is that with regards to social behaviours, natural selection is mediated by any positive or negative consequences for recipients, according to their genetic relatedness to the actor. Consequently, individuals should show greater selfish restraint, and can even behave altruistically, when interacting with closer relatives [4]. 

Having clarified the process of social adaptation, Hamilton [4] revealed its true purpose: to maximize inclusive fitness (figure 2). That is, Darwinian individuals should strive to maximize the sum of the fitness effects that they have on all their relatives (including themselves), each increment or decrement being weighted by their genetic relatedness. This is the most fundamental revision that has been made to the logic of Darwinism and—aside from a possibly apocryphal quip attributed to J. B. S. Haldane, to the effect that he would give his life to save the lives of two brothers or eight cousins—it was wholly original to Hamilton.

33 comments:

Dale Asberry said...

And clever by half of even the previous half... smdh

Vic78 said...

The sky being blue is situational. It isn't blue when you're in a plane. So she may be right.

ken said...

Again, if I don't see any evidence of him leaving his house it doesn't mean he didn't go to work at 7:00 am. We don't even have knowledge to know if he was at his house, or if he was someplace else and went to work from there. Perhaps like BD says maybe he telecommutes. To investigate if Vic went to work or not, we made many assumptions that we thought we could prove yes or no. If our assumptions are wrong, then the evidence we didn't find ends up not being of any value in confirming or negating what the person who recorded the events claims he witnessed.

CNu said...

I don't even know the fudge you cats are talking about now. I'm talking about that big-assed dome piece, the advent of monotheism, a dramatic shift in the entire canon of millenia-old Egyptian style and art, and above all else, THAT BIG-ASSED DOME PIECE!!! http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/amarnafigures.htm

As much as I'd like to humor your flightless cluckings about work route CSI, the color of the sky, and the taste of lemon meringue pie - I'm not interested in any of that unless you can show me how it relates to that BIG-ASSED DOME PIECE

This is all....,

CNu said...

and why did Michelangelo depict Moses with horns? http://taylormarshall.com/2013/08/the-horns-of-moses-defending-michelangelos-horned-moses.html

Tom said...

Oh, none of it relates to that. Some people's moms wrapped up their heads to make them look like management material. The skulls look funny. Monotheism started at some point, and we have no idea when or who.


That's what's going on with the heads.

umbrarchist said...

How is it that people don't get the way science is presented in courses is really boring? Start kids reading science fiction stories in grade school which contain accurate science and scientific thinking on the part of fictional characters and see how much they take to science.

Omnilingual (Feb 1957) by H. Beam Piper
http://www.tor.com/blogs/2012/03/scientific-language-h-beam-pipers-qomnilingualq
http://www.feedbooks.com/book/308/omnilingual
http://librivox.org/omnilingual-by-h-beam-piper/

CNu said...

Bring your kids into the kitchen and teach them how to cook from scratch. Take your kids hunting and fishing and teach them how to clean and dress whatever they bag, (before they take it home and cook it) Take apart some old electronic appliances, the older and bulkier the better. By the time you give them their first chemistry set, dissection kit, and electronics breadboard - they're already old hands.

umbrarchist said...

That will probably work too.

Ed Dunn said...

Prior to reading science fiction, they have to understand and appreciate science. The best example is just real lab work and building thing. Have you heard of Maker Space?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YUFzuphrns

umbrarchist said...

I have heard of it but I don't completely agree with needing science first. Partly it is a matter of the sophistication of the science in the story. I started reading SF at 9 with no science courses. I recall staring at the science books that the nuns never used.

But now there are things I never imagined.

EveryCircuit by Igor Vytyaz
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.everycircuit&hl=en

Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics (2006) by Stan Gibilisco
http://www.electronics-tutorials.com/book-reviews/teach-yourself-electricity-and-electronics.htm

DD said...

Off Topic.

Figured you might find this interesting:

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2014/04/desean_jackson_richard_sherman_and_black_american_economic_mobility_why.html

CNu said...

Not off-topic. Thanks. I read that article earlier today, along with the latest installments of Coates and Chait. The neverending whinery makes me too tired to live. How comes it that medieval-ly malnourished and consequently diminutive Guatamalans can trek thousands of miles, cross literal wilderness, hazard genuinely dangerous and predatory humans who are much larger than they are, cross a language and culture barrier, and live in the interstices of this society, and do so without a whit of whinery about the "microaggressions" and other vapor-catching, pearl-clutching offenses that magically render a perennial segment of black folks powerless and impotent to do better?

I don't find it interesting. I find it embarrassingly pathetic. I find it infantile and I have no empathy for any of it anymore.

smiley said...

No kinship and no inclusion for filthy animals http://www.kansascity.com/2014/04/03/4935471/staff-members-at-southwest-on.html

http://www.tonyskansascity.com/2014/04/tkc-exclusive-and-breaking-news-kansas.html

smiley said...

Just blame it all on "white privilege"

John Kurman said...

Has anyone investigated the reverse path? Does, for example, meditation change gut microbe populations?

John Kurman said...

Hamilton's rule doesn't do a very good job of explaining inter-species altruism on the savanna, or the organelle commensalism of eukaryotes, nor is group selection antagonistic to kinship mechanisms. Gene centric fundamentalists need to lighten up.

Makheru Bradley said...

As regards that Amarna art, it is a fact that the image of Amenhotep IV changed once he became Akhenaten. Why is left to speculation, but in the grand scheme of KMT’s nearly 3,000 year history, it does not matter. Akhenaten was a heretic, and that was his significance.

I have not heard anyone offer an explanation as to why one of his daughters, Meritaten is depicted with an extremely elongated skull, and another daughter, Ankhesenamun (the wife of Tutankhamun) isn’t.

Akhenaten’s monotheism is often presented as advancement in religious practice, when in reality it did not advance anything. It damn near brought ruin to KMT. Queen Tiye had to save the nation and the 18th Dynasty. What has monotheism given the world since it was incorporated into the world’s three major religions, other than continuous wars.

There are several versions of the Creation in Ancient KMT, but they all start with one source, sometimes known as Ra, Amon, Atum, or Ptah. That Creator was the Supreme God. Other spiritual beings in KMT were referred to as gods, whereas they are called angels in other religions.

http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/story/main.html

The people of Ancient KMT developed the world’s most complex system of spiritual beliefs. One could read “Ancient Egypt: Light of the World, Vol I & II,” “The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol 1 & II,” and “The Origin and Evolution of Religion” and would only have elementary knowledge of the complexity of Kemetic spiritual beliefs. Let it suffice to say that these beliefs allowed the civilization to stand for nearly 3,000 years. Nothing else in history comes close to the longevity of KMT.

CNu said...

An interesting question. Off the cuff, I'm thinking that faith without works is dead, i.e., meditation is an activity traditionally accompanied by a host of lifestyle, dietary, and other significant changes - which complement meditation. So, taking the lived example of the work, and the meditative practice of self-observation and self-remembering - quite a few strong "mechanical" impulses or "I's" get stilled by cutting out gluten.

Thought and meditation alone, absent the dietary change, were powerless to do anything about these impulses, though one would like to believe - given the benefit of hindsight - that perhaps the inclination to act, to make the dietary and lifestyle change, was somehow precipitated by disdain for these "I's".

the truth of the matter is that the volitional change was precipitated by sore knees and the suggestion of a respected, medically astute, and arch-pragmatic girlfriend who had obtained clear results

CNu said...

BD, come get your cousin...,

CNu said...

The fundamentalists are predictably doubling-down http://www.realclearscience.com/blog/2014/03/end_the_hype_over_epigenetics__lamarckian_evolution.html

CNu said...

Why is left to speculation, but in the grand scheme of KMT’s nearly
3,000 year history, it does not matter. Akhenaten was a heretic, and
that was his significance.


lol, you tickle me saying something like that with a straight face Bro.Makheru. By your own account, Akhenaton tried to crash pharaonic theocracy!Akhenaten’s monotheism is often presented as advancement in religious
practice, when in reality it did not advance anything. It damn near
brought ruin to KMT. Queen Tiye had to save the nation and the 18th
Dynasty. What has monotheism given the world since it was incorporated
into the world’s three major religions, other than continuous wars.and the consequences of that endeavor, again by your own account, is rendered by default infinitely worthy of exhaustive interrogation, rather than left to speculation...it does not matter.

Kurman summed it up poetically - In the Garden of the Melonheads - which is where we find ourselves, blind and ignorant of the lost and unrecoverable hieroglyphic pharaonic, surrounded on all sides by variations of a subjective hieratic virus of the mind whose apparent auteur was a mysteriously explicit and iconoclastic purveyor of the bigheaded trait.

Oh, the remote and alien complexity of Kemetic "beliefs" cannot under any circumstance be reconstituted and rebooted in the psyches of modern little heads..., that operating system was wiped out thousands of years ago much to the chagrin of the synarchists/occultists and fascists of the late 19th and early 20th century - who made significant efforts to reboot it. http://subrealism.blogspot.com/search?q=Conscious+Language

Makheru Bradley said...

"It does not matter" refers specifically to why images of Amenhotep IV changed when he became Akhenaten. Meaning it does not matter to me. Obviously it does matter to various scholars who've written volumes on that issue. While I agree that images from Ancient KMT are important, in this particular case I'm more focused on Akhenaten's heresy. We don't have to debate his Afrikanity.

http://bit.ly/1jfMLo0

"that operating system was wiped out thousands of years ago" It was not wiped out. That knowledge is stored within the deep recesses of our ancestral memory banks. Our problem is that we have not found the keys to unlock that memory, but as Marcus Garvey said, what humans have done, humans can do.

In Ancient KMT: “A long line of highly intelligent scientists studied their own essence, and discovered a hidden a hidden doorway to their souls and spirits; a doorway to advanced laws and rhythms that span the universe. They discovered universal laws rooted in the black seed, feeding every dimension of time and space. These original titans found that all life came from a black seed, all life was rooted in blackness, and all things possessed a memory of their collective ancestors… The chemical key to life and the brain itself was found to be centered around black neuromelanin. Inner vision, intuition, creative genius, and spiritual illumination were all found to be dependent upon pineal blood; born chemical messengers that controlled skin color and opened the hidden door to the darkness of the collective unconscious mind, allowing the ancient priest-scientist to visualize knowledge from the mind’s timeless collective unconscious memory banks.” -- Dr. Richard King

http://www.realityspeaksbookstore.com/rikiaforofbi.html

CNu said...

lol, again you tickle meWe don't have to debate his Afrikanity.The afro-trekkie yoke once again rears its myopic head. Why the need to state the obvious though utterly trivial, and deny the political and vastly more crucial, which is whether or not Freud was correct and the pharaonic/caananite exhiles in Palestine are indeed the historically ancient chosen?!?!?!?! http://www.egypt-tehuti.org/downloadarticles/akhenaton-moses.pdf

Wouldn't this invalidate the claims of the Kazar pretenders to the "Holy" Land? The Tehutians feel me on this, but you of all people straight slippin...., and falling into some racialized, pseudo-scientific, new age hokum In Ancient KMT: “A long line of highly intelligent scientists studied
their own essence, and discovered a hidden a hidden doorway to their
souls and spirits; a doorway to advanced laws and rhythms that span the
universe. They discovered universal laws rooted in the black seed,
feeding every dimension of time and space. These original titans found
that all life came from a black seed, all life was rooted in blackness,
and all things possessed a memory of their collective ancestors… The
chemical key to life and the brain itself was found to be centered
around black neuromelanin. Inner vision, intuition, creative genius, and
spiritual illumination were all found to be dependent upon pineal
blood; born chemical messengers that controlled skin color and opened
the hidden door to the darkness of the collective unconscious mind,
allowing the ancient priest-scientist to visualize knowledge from the
mind’s timeless collective unconscious memory banks.”Really Bro.....?

Makheru Bradley said...

“Why the need to state the obvious though utterly trivial…” Written like a true neophyte. This matter was so trivial, TPTB hired Skip Gates and paid for a full-page ad in the NYT to attack our movement in 1992.

http://nyti.ms/OlSdKX

And it obviously mattered to the author of your referenced material: “There may have been imminent danger awaiting Tiye’s sons. She was of mixed Egyptian-Israelite blood, and if her son succeeded to the throne, this would be regarded as forming a new dynasty of non-Egyptian, part-Israelite rulers over Egypt.” If this is not important why is it that everything you’ve referenced has attempted to prove that Yuya, Tiye, and Akhenaten,were part-Hebrew. But Makheru is the one “straight slippin, and falling into some racialized, pseudo-scientific, new age hokum.” Since you’re referencing this material please show me the image of Tiye and Akhenaten that shows a trace of Hebrew blood.

You say Exodus is irrelevant yet the thesis of your sources is based on cross-references with the Bible, e.g., “Thus Nefertiti is recognized in the Bible as Miriam, Moses’ sister.”

Wouldn't this invalidate the claims of the Kazar pretenders to the "Holy" Land? Nothing you’ve presented so far demonstrates that is what Freud, Osman, et al., were trying to prove.

CNu said...

Bro. Makheru, smdh...,

You're so intent on representing your dying religion ("movement") - it appears you've altogether missed my point. We've now officially reached our Bro.Feed/Rev.Ken moment. I'm fully conversant with every aspect of your dying new age religion. Having weighed it on the scales of Ma'at, I clearly understand why it's dying, and furthermore, why it will be completely dead and gone with the passing of your generation.

Hokum like the black dot, which nary a single one of you has proven capable of manifesting or operationalizing, coupled with historically and racially meaningless essentialism (cause ain't a single one of us khemetic) is the exact equivalent of Nazi Aryan Vril/Shambalah new age nonsense.

This hokum has a miraculous way of turning up among broke-down and broke-assed peoples during every period of their peak malaise. It turned up among the goat herds in Palestine who wanted to be something and somebody when they compared and contrasted themselves with the literate Greeks who'd sauntered in and taken over. Why, these goatherds made up an ancient hagiography for themselves borrowing liberally from the ancient pharaonic exiles in Palestine. After the Germans got handed their asses and a whopping bill for the ruckus post WW-I, they too embraced a glorious pseudo-history for themselves and their "great race" - at that time stuck firmly to bottom of the anglo shoe. Finally now, in the ashes of black political nationalism, comes the X-Clan with its entertaining and utterly contrived 50 page book versions of world history - having nothing whatsoever to do with the descendents of west african slaves in the new world. With all these little heads, the more things change, the more they stay the same.

So let me repeat my point(s):

1. Those big heads though - and the worldwide association of big/heads of state such that mothers painfully deformed their babies heads.

2. I don't know what Hebrew blood is. I know that what happened in ancient Palestine that gave rise to monotheistic culture was an historically, factually, and actually Egyptian political and economic thing - and I know that because these people were then literate and kept records of their historically significant activities.

3. Are we now in the garden of the melonheads, or, are we in somebody else's garden.

4. I'm very interested in the dawn of monotheism, much as I'm interested in the dawn of broad subjective self-awarenessOur look at the dawn of monotheism sheds light on some little known, yet hard facts which, for the curious, give rise to such seemingly heretic questions as:

- And if the Genesis, essentially, were historical, with Eden a recognizable site?

- And if the "Children of Israel [Jacob]", in reality, were Egyptians by descent?

- Could Abraham/Ibrahim be identical with Zarathushtra/Zoroaster?

- What difference between Jacob, Akhenaton, Moses, Aaron, Salomon, Oedipus?

- Is Horemheb, the Pharaoh, hiding behind the apparent composite "Joseph"?
Not affiliated with any religion, sect or related organization, politically neutral and mandated by no one except our individual conscience, CORUM thus continues its 30 year ivory tower work. It does so in the hope of re-discovering and strengthening some of our common roots like *S*L*M* - as its contribution to help resolve some problems which have marked the out-going century and which have turned the Middle East into a permanent powder keg (on the current debate over Jerusalem, see our note at: www.solami.com/slm2.htm).

CNu said...

Skip Gates straight slayed y'all in `92But why target the Jews? Using the same historical methodology, after all, the researchers of the book could have produced a damning treatise on the involvement of left-handers in the "black holocaust." The answer requires us to go beyond the usual shibboleths about bigotry and view the matter, from the demagogues' perspective, strategically: as the bid of one black elite to supplant another.

It requires us, in short, to see anti-Semitism as a weapon in the raging battle of who will speak for black America -- those who have sought common cause with others or those who preach a barricaded withdrawal into racial authenticity.

In short, for the tacticians of the new anti-Semitism, the original sin of American Jews was their involvement -- truly "inordinate," truly "disproportionate" -- not in slavery, but in the front ranks of the civil rights struggle.

For decent and principled reasons, many black intellectuals are loath to criticize "oppositional" black leaders. Yet it has become increasingly apparent that to continue to maintain a comradely silence may be, in effect, to capitulate to the isolationist agenda, to betray our charge and trust. And, to be sure, many black writers, intellectuals, and religious leaders have taken an unequivocal stand on this issue.

Cornel West aptly describes black anti-Semitism as "the bitter fruit of a profound self-destructive impulse, nurtured on the vines of hopelessness and concealed by empty gestures of black unity."

After 12 years of conservative indifference, those political figures who acquiesced, by malign neglect, to the deepening crisis of black America should not feign surprise that we should prove so vulnerable to the demagogues' rousing messages of hate, their manipulation of the past and present.I was unaware of that fact. Thanks for sharing the murder weapon.

Makheru Bradley said...

"Skip Gates straight slayed y'all" LOL, just like Johnny Ringo, it was the hired gun Gates who got slayed.

http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/henrik22.htm

Makheru Bradley said...

“it will be completely dead and gone with the passing of your generation.” Attn: NSA, based on this analysis by Bro. Nulan, you can cease your surveillance of us.

“I'm fully conversant with every aspect of your dying new age religion.” That’s real interesting, given the fact that none of us are religious.

“I know that what happened in ancient Palestine that gave rise to monotheistic culture was an historically, factually, and actually Egyptian political and economic thing.” What specific time period are you referring to?

Is Horemheb, the Pharaoh, hiding behind the apparent composite "Joseph"? Good Brother Nulan, since you are using these Biblical cross-references, how could Moses (Akhenaten) precede Joseph (Horemheb)?

It is a historical fact that the Hyksos were driven out of KMT by Ahmose The Liberator, the founder of the 18th Dynasty. Numerous scholars agree that a group of Kemetic heretics followed Akhenaten out of KMT. We know that the leaders of KMT after Akhenaten restored the traditional system of spiritual beliefs. We know that the kings of the 19th Dynasty restored portions of the empire which were lost under Amenhotep III and IV.

[The great chief of Hatti (the Hittites) informs the chief of Qidi: “Ready yourself that we may go to Egypt. The word of the king (Ramses II) has manifested itself, let us obey (Ramses II). He gives the breaths of life to those who love him: the whole world loves him…] Gaston Maspero (quoted in Diop’s “Civilization or Barbarism")

[Only one mention of the people of Israel occurs by name on all of the monuments of Egypt. This was discovered … by Professor Flinders Petrie on a stele erected by the King Merenptah (19th Dynasty). There is no possibility of identifying this with the Biblical Israelites… The people of Ysiraal in this inscription are identified by the Pharaoh with the nomads of the Edomite Shasu or shepherds, and are classed by him with the confederate marauders who invaded Egypt with the Libu and were defeated in a huge slaughter in the battle of Pa-ar-shep, which is recorded on the monuments.]-- Albert Churchward “The Origin and Evolution of Religion”

A group of people created a “narrative of faith” using some elements of Kemetic history and mythology. Constantine codified that narrative so that he could use it to expand/consolidate his political/economic power.That’s basically how it’s been used since Constantine. The Ashkenazi’s are just the most recent exploiters of that narrative.

Keep chasing those melon-heads Bro. Nulan. I’ll keep standing on the accomplishments of the Nile Valley Afrikans of Antiquity, because “what humans have done; humans can do.”

Makheru Bradley said...

“it will be completely dead and gone with the passing of your generation.” Attn: NSA, based on this analysis by Bro. Nulan, you can cease your surveillance of us.

“I'm fully conversant with every aspect of your dying new age religion.” That’s real interesting, given the fact that none of us are religious.

“I know that what happened in ancient Palestine that gave rise to monotheistic culture was an historically, factually, and actually Egyptian political and economic thing.” What specific time period are you referring to?

Is Horemheb, the Pharaoh, hiding behind the apparent composite "Joseph"? Good Brother Nulan, since you are using these Biblical cross-references, how could Moses (Akhenaten) precede Joseph (Horemheb)?

It is a historical fact that the Hyksos were driven out of KMT by Ahmose The Liberator, the founder of the 18th Dynasty. Numerous scholars agree that a group of Kemetic heretics followed Akhenaten out of KMT. We know that the leaders of KMT after Akhenaten restored the traditional spiritual system of beliefs. We know that the kings of the 19th Dynasty restored portions of the empire which was lost under Amenhotep III and IV.

[The great chief of Hatti (the Hittites) informs the chief of Qidi: “Ready yourself that we may go to Egypt. The word of the king (Ramses II) has manifested itself, let us obey (Ramses II). He gives the breaths of life to those who love him: the whole world loves him…] Gaston Maspero (quoted in Diop’s “Civilization or Barbarism)

[Only one mention of the people of Israel occurs by name on all of the monuments of Egypt. This was discovered … by Professor Flinders Petrie on a stele erected by the King Merenptah (19th Dynasty). There is no possibility of identifying this with the Biblical Israelites… The people of Ysiraal in this inscription are identified by the Pharaoh with the nomads of the Edomite Shasu or shepherds, and are classed by him with the confederate marauders who invaded Egypt with the Libu and were defeated in a huge slaughter in the battle of Pa-ar-shep, which is recorded on the monuments.]-- Albert Churchward “The Origin and Evolution of Religion”

A group of people created a “narrative of faith” using some elements of history. Constantine codified that narrative so that he could use it to expand/consolidate his political/economic power.That’s basically how it’s been used since Constantine. The Ashkenazi’s are just the most recent exploiters of that narrative.

Keep chasing those melon-heads Bro. Nulan. I’ll keep standing on the accomplishments of the Nile Valley Afrikans of Antiquity, because “what humans have done; humans can do.”

Makheru Bradley said...

“it will be completely dead and gone with the passing of your generation.” Attn: NSA, based on this analysis by Bro. Nulan, you can cease your surveillance of us.

“I'm fully conversant with every aspect of your dying new age religion.” That’s real interesting, given the fact that none of us are religious.

“I know that what happened in ancient Palestine that gave rise to monotheistic culture was an historically, factually, and actually Egyptian political and economic thing.” What specific time period are you referring to?

Is Horemheb, the Pharaoh, hiding behind the apparent composite "Joseph"? Good Brother Nulan, since you are using these Biblical cross-references, how could Moses (Akhenaten) precede Joseph (Horemheb)?

It is a historical fact that the Hyksos were driven out of KMT by Ahmose The Liberator, the founder of the 18th Dynasty. Numerous scholars agree that a group of Kemetic heretics followed Akhenaten out of KMT. We know that the leaders of KMT after Akhenaten restored the traditional spiritual system of beliefs. We know that the kings of the 19th Dynasty restored portions of the empire which was lost under Amenhotep III and IV.

[The great chief of Hatti (the Hittites) informs the chief of Qidi: “Ready yourself that we may go to Egypt. The word of the king (Ramses II) has manifested itself, let us obey (Ramses II). He gives the breaths of life to those who love him: the whole world loves him…] Gaston Maspero (quoted in Diop’s “Civilization or Barbarism)

[Only one mention of the people of Israel occurs by name on all of the monuments of Egypt. This was discovered … by Professor Flinders Petrie on a stele erected by the King Merenptah (19th Dynasty). There is no possibility of identifying this with the Biblical Israelites… The people of Ysiraal in this inscription are identified by the Pharaoh with the nomads of the Edomite Shasu or shepherds, and are classed by him with the confederate marauders who invaded Egypt with the Libu and were defeated in a huge slaughter in the battle of Pa-ar-shep, which is recorded on the monuments.]-- Albert Churchward “The Origin and Evolution of Religion”

A group of people created a “narrative of faith” using some elements of history. Constantine codified that narrative so that he could use it to expand/consolidate his political/economic power.That’s basically how it’s been used since Constantine. The Ashkenazi’s are just the most recent exploiters of that narrative.

Keep chasing those melon-heads Bro. Nulan. I’ll keep standing on the accomplishments of the Nile Valley Afrikans of Antiquity, because “what humans have done; humans can do.”

uglyblackjohn said...

@ JK - Meditation? Does that include fasting and prayer?

John Kurman said...

Why not? Anything that affects all those little guys that make up the enteric nervous system can be effected through any number of means. Question is does what we do to our neurons and associated (AT LEAST as important) glia cells through these techniques noticed by the gut microbes? And what or how do they react if so?