Tuesday, October 07, 2014

hello, we're from the west and we're here to help you....,

natgeo |  The severity of this outbreak in West Africa reflects not only the transmissibility of the disease, but also the sad circumstances of poverty and the chronic lack of medical care, infrastructure, and supplies. That's really what this is telling us: that we need to try harder to imagine just what it's like to be poor in Africa. One of the consequences of being poor in Africa, especially in a country like Liberia or Sierra Leone, which have gone through a lot of political turmoil and have weak governance and a shortage of medical resources, is that the current outbreak could turn into an epidemic.

It's being spread because people are taking care of their loved ones at home. They're touching them, they're feeding them, they're washing them, they're cleaning up the vomit and the diarrhea that Ebola generates. That's a classic circumstance in which even health care workers are getting infected.

In addition, there are burial practices that involve washing the bodies and in some cases cleaning out the body cavities. In some cases, the funeral practices also involve a final touch or even a final kiss of the deceased person. And one of the things that's particularly nefarious about Ebola is that it continues to live in a dead person for some period of time after death. A person who's been dead for a day or two may still be seething with Ebola virus. So funeral practices can be a big factor in allowing it to be transmitted.

It's a combination of horrible circumstances. But the primary factor is poverty.

There's a cultural dimension to the way that disease is interpreted in Africa, isn't there? A kind of standoff between sorcery and science.
That's absolutely true. I know a little bit more about that element among the ethnic peoples of central Africa than West Africa. But in both regions there's a belief that these mysterious, invisible plagues are caused by sorcery and evil spirits—what we might call putting hexes on people.
There's a belief in some cultures that if a person experiences good fortune in financial terms and does not share the good fortune, when that person becomes ill with a mysterious fever and dies, people tend to say: "Aha! It was because he didn't share. It was the spirits who brought him down." There's also a belief in some cultures that if someone doesn't share, another person will direct these evil spirits to take that person down. There are a lot of different beliefs from culture to culture that involve the idea of sorcery. And that just adds to the confusion and the capacity for transmission.

When and where did Ebola first appear? (Belgian nuns with dirty needles in Yambuku!!!)
The first known outbreaks were in central Africa, in 1976: one in Zaire, the country that's now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and one in Sudan. The Zaire outbreak is the more famous. It began in a place called Yambuku, a little mission town in north central Zaire. People were suddenly dying with these horrible symptoms, but nobody knew what it was. An international team led by Karl Johnson went in, and it was this team that first isolated and identified the virus. They named it after a nearby river, the Ebola River.

in 1976 I discovered Ebola - now I fear an unimaginable tragedy

guardian |  Yes, and our first thought was: "What the hell is that?" The virus that we had spent so much time searching for was very big, very long and worm-like. It had no similarities with yellow fever. Rather, it looked like the extremely dangerous Marburg virus which, like ebola, causes a haemorrhagic fever. In the 1960s the virus killed several laboratory workers in Marburg, Germany.

Were you afraid at that point?
I knew almost nothing about the Marburg virus at the time. When I tell my students about it today, they think I must come from the stone age. But I actually had to go the library and look it up in an atlas of virology. It was the American Centres for Disease Control which determined a short time later that it wasn't the Marburg virus, but a related, unknown virus. We had also learned in the meantime that hundreds of people had already succumbed to the virus in Yambuku and the area around it.

A few days later, you became one of the first scientists to fly to Zaire.
Yes. The nun who had died and her fellow sisters were all from Belgium. In Yambuku, which had been part of the Belgian Congo, they operated a small mission hospital. When the Belgian government decided to send someone, I volunteered immediately. I was 27 and felt a bit like my childhood hero, Tintin. And, I have to admit, I was intoxicated by the chance to track down something totally new.

In the end, you discovered that the Belgian nuns had unwittingly spread the virus. How did that happen?
In their hospital they regularly gave pregnant women vitamin injections using unsterilised needles. By doing so, they infected many young women in Yambuku with the virus. We told the nuns about the terrible mistake they had made, but looking back I would say that we were much too careful in our choice of words. Clinics that failed to observe this and other rules of hygiene functioned as catalysts in all additional Ebola outbreaks. They drastically sped up the spread of the virus or made the spread possible in the first place. Even in the current Ebola outbreak in west Africa, hospitals unfortunately played this ignominious role in the beginning.

After Yambuku, you spent the next 30 years of your professional life devoted to combating Aids. But now Ebola has caught up to you again. American scientists fear that hundreds of thousands of people could ultimately become infected. Was such an epidemic to be expected?

vice news: the fight against ebola

The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in Guinea in December 2013. From there, it quickly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. Cases also appeared in Senegal and Nigeria, and a separate outbreak appeared in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Today, Liberia lies is at the center of the epidemic, with more than 3,000 cases of infection. About half of them have been fatal.

As President Barack Obama announced that he would be sending American military personnel to West Africa to help combat the epidemic, VICE News traveled to the Liberian capital of Monrovia to spend time with those on the front lines of the outbreak.

In Part 1, we meet confused and distressed people trying to receive treatment in the increasingly chaotic city, and speak to an ambulance driver doing his best to aid the sick.

Watch Part 2: 

Monday, October 06, 2014

marburg on the loose in uganda - still pretending this is murphy's law at work?

xinhua |  The deadly Marburg hemorrhagic fever has broken out in Uganda after samples taken to the Uganda Virus Institute tested positive, a top government official said Sunday.
Elioda Tumwesigye, minister of state for health told reporters that one person has so far died and 80 others are being monitored in central Uganda and the western district of Kasese.
"The Ministry of Health would like to inform the country of an outbreak Marburg which has so far killed one person. Another person who has developed signs is being monitored," he said.
He said the index case died on Sept. 28 after developing signs of Marburg which was later confirmed by laboratory tests. The minister said the deceased's brother has also developed signs and is currently under isolation.
He added that all the people that had contact with them are being monitored.
The Marburg virus was last reported in Uganda in 2012.
According to the World Health Organization, Marburg is a severe and highly fatal disease caused by a virus from the same family as the one that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
According to the global health body, the illness caused by Marburg virus begins abruptly, with severe headache and malaise.
Case fatality rates have varied greatly, from 25 percent in the initial laboratory-associated outbreak in 1967, to more than 80 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1998-2000, to even higher in the outbreak that began in Angola in late 2004.
Currently some West African states are facing a related disease- - Ebola -- which has left more than 3,000 people dead. Endi

homeless dood infected in dallas riding in the infected ambulance after duncan...,

buzzfeed |  Authorities in Dallas have reportedly found Michael Lively, a homeless man they were looking for who may have come in contact with U.S. Ebola patient Thomas Eric Duncan. 

During a press conference on Sunday, Dallas County Judge Clay Lewis Jenkins did not identify the person, who he described as a “low-risk individual,” but a CBS reporter tweeted the man thought to be Lively. He reportedly rode in the same ambulance as Duncan. 

Judge Jenkins said that they were looking for the man as a precautionary measure, and asked him to come forward if he could hear him, stating that he had not committed any crimes.

“We are working to locate the individual and get him to a comfortable, compassionate place where we can monitor him and care for his every need for the full incubation period,” Jenkins said.
A few hours after officials first announced he was missing, Lively was located, according to Dallas city spokeswoman Sana Syed.

four thousand american troops in west africa are intended to prevent further outbreak in america...,

WaPo |  By early September, there was still no agreement among the major global health organizations and governments on how to respond to the epidemic. Unlike other disaster responses, such as the one after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, no major U.N. operation was in place. And despite a 20-page "road map" that the WHO had introduced, it was unclear how anyone would put it into effect.

"Six months into the worst Ebola epidemic in history, the world is losing the battle to contain it," Liu, of Doctors Without Borders, told the United Nations on Sept. 2. For the first time, she implored countries to deploy their military assets - something her organization had previously opposed for health emergencies.

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim was beyond frustrated. Kim, a doctor and an expert on infectious diseases, called an emergency meeting for Sept. 3 that would include major decision-makers from the government and the private sector.

About 50 people crowded into the 12th-floor conference room at the World Bank's Washington headquarters. Gayle Smith from Obama's National Security Council was on the telephone. A senior WHO official participated by video link. The session lasted two hours.

Frieden showed up and had a dire warning: The response was like "using a pea shooter against a raging elephant."

Kim warned, "The future of the continent is on the line."

By the first week of September, senior officials across the U.S. government had come to a grim realization: The civilian response was never going to happen fast enough to catch up with the epidemic. The CDC had managed to put more than 100 staff members on the ground and the U.S. disaster relief team had dispatched 30 more, but they and other aid workers were facing too big of a challenge. Only the U.S. military had the capacity to move with enough speed and scale.

The White House was talking to the Pentagon about deploying a field hospital to treat any health-care workers who might get sick, an effort to reassure potential volunteers. U.S. military planners in West Africa were telling Washington that 500 treatment beds were needed for sick patients. A host of agencies across the government had to work out complicated logistics.

On Sept. 7, Obama said on NBC's "Meet the Press" that he intended to use the U.S. military to provide equipment, logistical support and other aid to West Africa.

But the region now had thousands of confirmed Ebola cases, and there was nowhere to treat the sick and the dying. On Sept. 9, Sirleaf sent Obama an urgent plea:

"I am being honest with you when I say that at this rate, we will never break the transmission chain and the virus will overwhelm us," she wrote.

The next day, high-level administration officials met at the White House to discuss military options. "People were asked to do more homework on the how," and then report back two days later, on Sept. 12, a senior official said.

hajj will not be an ebola propagation vector...,

pbs  |  With the arrival of approximately two million people from around the world in Saudi Arabia for the annual hajj pilgrimage, there are a group of pilgrims who were not welcomed.

The Saudi government has banned the entry of travelers from three countries currently dealing with the Ebola epidemic: Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. The decision to reject visa requests from these countries has affected 7,400 people, according to the Associated Press.

Hospitals in Saudi Arabia are also preparing in the event of an outbreak by setting up isolation and surgery units as well as dispatching medical staff to airports.

Despite banning pilgrim seekers from West Africa, Saudi officials are granting visas to pilgrims travelling from Nigeria. Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz International Airport has provided them with two exclusive lounges as a precaution.

“So far 118,000 pilgrims have arrived by air from Nigeria. There was not a single suspected case of the deadly virus among anyone of them,” said Abdul Ghani Al-Malki, supervisor of hajj affairs at the airport.

israel needed no ebola to make its position crystal clear...,

JTA |  The Israeli government reportedly denied a U.S. request to assist in medical relief in Ebola-stricken West African countries, but an Israeli NGO is already on the ground in Sierre Leone.

Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon rejected the request, which first came to the Israeli Foreign Ministry from Samantha Power, the U.S. envoy to the United Nations, Ynet reported Wednesday. In the request, Power cited Israel’s past successes in providing medical relief in disaster-stricken areas.

The Foreign Ministry favored the request, Ynet said, but sought the approval of the Defense Ministry. Yaalon denied it, citing the risk of infection to Israeli medical teams and the army troops needed to secure them in West Africa. Israel’s assistance was sought in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Meanwhile, the Israeli non-governmental organization IsraAid, which receives support from U.S. Jews, met this week with the first lady of Sierra Leone and is in discussions with local authorities about how to provide psychological and social counseling and increase local health awareness. IsraAid founder Shachar Zahavi told JTA that his organization is also in the process of recruiting medical personnel to join those treating the affected area in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

In the coming months IsraAid plans to send over 30 experts in post-traumatic stress  disorder prevention and stress management to West Africa to conduct intensive training for local social workers and health workers.

The idea, according to IsraAid is “to provide them with practical tools in stress management and trauma prevention techniques. The program will be based on IsraAid’s world-renowned holistic approach developed and implemented after disasters in Haiti, Japan, South Sudan, Jordan and other countries around the world.”

Sunday, October 05, 2014

even the hittites used "cursed rams" against their enemies...,

ibtimes |  If latest reports are to be believed, the Islamic State militants might be conspiring to deliberately infect jihadists with the deadly Ebola virus and send them to America in order to spread the disease in the US – an event that could see America being attacked in a new pseudo-war.
The Israeli News Agency, a site which claims to be Israel's first online news organisation has confirmed the authenticity of the report saying it "clears all news items relating to Israeli security with the Israel government press office."

The agency said, citing "Israeli security sources", that dozens of ISIS fighters in Syria have fallen ill and had symptoms of Ebola. This news quickly ignited a new conspiracy theory claiming that ISIS is planning to send Ebola-infected militants into the US to spread the disease.

"While Western nations fighting the Islamic State might consider this reported Ebola outbreak among radical jihadists to be welcome news, there is a very big, very dangerous downside to Islamic terrorists being carriers of the virus," Norvell Rose, the winner of numerous journalism honours, writes for WesternJournalism.com.

The article also cites the Israeli News Agency (INA) for inference into why the news could prove dangerous for the Americans. The INA in its report quoted a source it identified only as "AVi", who is "a global anti-terrorism consultant" as saying: "We know that ISIS has training camps in Africa and it is highly possible that this is where contact with the virus was made.

"This would add new meaning to the US stating that no boots would be on the ground as both missiles and Ebola penetrates one of the worst evils that the world has ever known."

The theory was further bolstered by reports of a direct threat from the ISIS militants who said they would spread the Ebola virus to the United States and its allies if they continue to wage war on the organisation inside Syria and Iraq as reported by Shoebat.com, a website created by Walid Shoebat who was a radicalised Muslim until 1994 when he converted to Christianity.

Shoebat quoted a statement from ISIS published in another website called Vetogate.com. The statement reportedly said: "Followers and soldiers of the Islamic State are mostly suicide bombers and all of them are ready not only to carry Ebola, but to drink Ebola if they were asked to carry and spread it in the United States. This is not difficult but we need a decision from the leaders jihadist (sic)."

The statement further said: "The process of spreading disease is not difficult. It can easily be transported in a bottle in your bag from Africa to America. The contents of the bottle can then be released in an air-conditioning duct or put it in the public drinking water."

throwing emr and nurse under the bus to conceal the fact that physician was following profit maximization sop...,

businessweek |  The Dallas hospital treating the first Ebola case diagnosed in the U.S. sent the patient, Thomas Duncan, home the first time he showed up because the doctors who saw him never learned that he’d just come from West Africa. The hospital has blamed a flaw in its electronic health records for keeping information collected by a nurse, including Duncan’s travel history, from being presented to the treating physician, who mistook Duncan’s symptoms for a low-level infection, on Sept. 25.

The apparent mistake meant Duncan was not admitted and isolated until Sept. 28. That increased the risk of infection for those he came in contact with while he was sick, including his family, who are now quarantined in their Dallas apartment. It also widened the circle of contacts that public health officials must trace and monitor for symptoms

America’s risk of an Ebola epidemic remains vanishingly small. The country has the public health resources and hospital capacity to stop the spread of the infection, which is only transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids after a patient exhibits symptoms. The misstep at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, though, indicates something patients should be spooked about: the very real chance that errors, oversights, or deviations from established procedures could kill them.

covering up for the a-hole md who didn't check the nurse's notes and put presbyterian's bottom line over patient-zero's well-being...,

newsmax |  Dallas doctors apparently never saw a nurse's note that an emergency room patient with fever and pains had recently been in Africa, and he was released into the community while infected with deadly Ebola.

It remains unclear why, despite the hospital's attempt at an explanation Friday. Early in the day, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said in a statement that a nurse's notes on the infected patient, Thomas Eric Duncan, were contained in records that a physician wouldn't see. Friday night, a spokesman for the institution said that wasn't so.

"We would like to clarify a point made in the statement released earlier," Wendell Watson, a spokesman for the hospital, wrote in an e-mail. "As a standard part of the nursing process, the patient's travel history was documented and available to the full care team in the electronic health record (EHR), including within the physician's workflow."

There "was no flaw in the EHR in the way the physician and nursing portions interacted related to this event," Watson said.

The changing message came after the hospital faced criticism from other medical professionals about the actions taken prior to the patient's release. Ashish Jha, a health policy professor at Harvard University's School of Public Health in Boston, said no matter what, the doctor responsible should have double-checked the man's travel history before he was sent back out into the community.

‘Logic Flaws' 
"There are so many flaws in the logic of ‘The EMR system made us to do it,'" Jha said in a telephone interview Friday, referring to the hospital's initial statement. "When a patient walks in the ER with a fever, the standard question is ‘Have you traveled?' I don't understand why that question wasn't asked by the physician."

Two days after being released, Duncan returned in an ambulance to the Dallas hospital, was placed in isolation and subsequently confirmed as having the deadly disease.

Wendell Watson, a spokesman for the hospital, said earlier Friday that the hospital had wrongly designed its digital record system so not all of a nurse's notes are visible to doctors. Its not clear from the clarification sent to media just before midnight what actually happened.

Saturday, October 04, 2014

utah, honolulu, and toronto all clear, chocalate city gets a live one though...,

WaPo |  But before an Ebola case was confirmed in Dallas this week, there had not been a single Ebola diagnosis in the United States.

Potential Ebola patients who were evaluated in New York, California, New Mexico and Miami all tested negative for the virus.

People with Ebola are not contagious until they begin showing symptoms, which include a fever of greater than 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit, severe headache and vomiting. And you can only get Ebola through contact with a contagious person's bodily fluids.

Several Ebola patients have been transported from West Africa to the United States, including three Americans who were in Liberia — doctors Richard Sacra and Kent Brantly and missionary worker Nancy Writebol — who have already been discharged after they were successfully treated here. A Liberian American, Patrick Sawyer, fell ill after traveling to Nigeria and died of the disease.

The NIH in Bethesda recently admitted an American patient who had been exposed to Ebola.
On Thursday night, NBC News announced that a freelance cameraman working for the network in Liberia has tested positive for Ebola and will return to the United States for treatment.

In Maryland, all health providers and labs are required to report suspected Ebola cases to the state Department of Health and Mental Hygiene immediately, said spokesman Christopher Garrett. The state agency works with local health departments to ensure that proper procedures, including isolation, are followed; information has been distributed to hospitals, nursing homes, labs and other providers.

where uncle pookie an'em go after aerosolizing that vomit and tracking their shoes through the runoff?

Friday, October 03, 2014

nurses not having it...,

nationalgeographic |  In a poll of 400 National Nurses United members released Wednesday, 60 percent said their hospital is not prepared for the Ebola virus, and more than 80 percent said their hospital had not educated them about Ebola or communicated any policy regarding potential patients infected with the virus.

Nearly one-third of the nurses said their hospitals lacked sufficient supplies of face shields and fluid-resistant gowns needed to protect them against the virus.

The union, which staged a "die-in" Monday on the Las Vegas strip to call attention to their Ebola concerns, blamed a lack of information and proper systems—rather than human error—for the decision last week to let Duncan leave the hospital when he first turned up complaining of fever and abdominal pain and mentioned his recent trip to Liberia. He was sent home but was readmitted on Sunday, much sicker.

It's not clear why the information about his recent travels did not raise a red flag in the emergency department, and why he was not suspected of having Ebola.

In a prepared statement in response to questions about the nurses' concerns, the American Hospital Association released a statement from Ken Anderson, the chief operating officer for the organization's Health Research and Educational Trust.

"We strongly recommend that hospitals follow CDC guidance in identifying potential Ebola patients," the statement said. "While in the Dallas case the hospital has acknowledged that it had a regrettable lapse in communication, the AHA is redoubling our efforts to make sure hospitals are aware of the latest CDC guidance, including checklists and screening criteria."

Frieden described the missed opportunity to catch Duncan's disease earlier as a "teachable moment," and said the CDC is redoubling its efforts to provide clear and useful information to hospitals about the Ebola risk.

"Essentially, any hospital in the country can safely take care of a patient with Ebola," he said, by providing a private room and bathroom, and by "rigorous, meticulous training" of staff. But Frieden acknowledged that the CDC is still working through the challenge of how to safely dispose of medical waste from Ebola patients.

the most dangerous path of transmission is health officials lying in an attempt to prevent panic

americanthinker |   The public has been misinformed regarding human-to-human transmission of Ebola. Assurances that Ebola can be transmitted only through direct contact with bodily fluids need to be seriously scrutinized in the wake of the West Africa outbreak.

The Canadian Health Department states that airborne transmission of Ebola is strongly suspected and the CDC admits that Ebola can be transmitted in situations where there is no physical contact between people, i.e.: via direct airborne inhalation into the lungs or into the eyes, or via contact with airborne fomites which adhere to nearby surfaces. That helps explain why 81 doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers have died in West Africa to date. These courageous healthcare providers use careful CDC-level barrier precautions such as gowns, gloves, and head cover, but it appears they have inadequate respiratory and eye protection. Dr. Michael V. Callahan, an infectious disease specialist at Massachusetts General Hospital who has worked in Africa during Ebola outbreaks said that minimum CDC level precautions
“led to the infection of my nurses and physician co-workers who came in contact with body fluids.”
Currently the CDC advises healthcare workers to use goggles and simple face masks for respiratory and eye protection, and a fitted N-95 mask during aerosol-generating medical procedures. Since so many doctors and nurses are dying in West Africa, it is clear that this level of protection is inadequate. Full face respirators with P-100 (HEPA) replacement filters would provide greater airway and eye protection, and I believe this would save the lives of many doctors, nurses, and others who come into close contact with, or in proximity to, Ebola victims.

The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases conducted a monkey to monkey Ebola study in December 1995, published in The Lancet, Vol. 346. (Here is a link to the abstract, but the entire article must be purchased.) Several Rhesus monkeys were infected with Zaire Ebola by intramuscular injection while three control Rhesus monkeys were kept in cages separated 10 feet from the infected monkeys. All of the injected monkeys died of Ebola by day 13 and 2 out of 3 control monkeys died of Ebola by 8 days after that. The authors of this study concluded that:
"The exact mode of transmission to the control monkeys cannot be absolutely determined, although the pattern of pulmonary antigen staining in one of the control monkeys was virtually identical to that reported in experimental Ebola virus aerosol infection in rhesus monkeys, suggesting airborne transmission of the disease via infectious droplets... Fomite or contact droplet transmission of the virus between cages was considered unlikely. Standard procedures in our BL4 containment laboratories have always been successful in the prevention of transmission of Ebola or Marburg virus to uninflected animals. Thus, pulmonary, nasopharyngeal, oral, or conjunctival exposure to airborne droplets of the virus had to be considered as the most likely mode of infection... Our present findings emphasize the advisability of at-risk personnel employing precautions to safeguard against ocular, oral, and nasopharyngeal exposure to the virus."
Another NHP to NHP (monkey-to-monkey) study was published in July of this year. Rhesus monkeys were infected with Ebola via intramuscular injection and they were terminated on day 6 after becoming unresponsive, but without developing vomiting, diarrhea, or apparent respiratory illness. Ebola virus was detected in their blood, and genetic fragments of Ebola were found in their nose, mouth, and rectum, but no intact infectious Ebola virus was found. 

Control Cynomolgus monkeys were caged 1 foot away from the infected Rhesus monkeys but did not become infected with Ebola. This experiment is not a helpful comparison in human to human Ebola infections which are characterized by GI (vomiting & diarrhea) and respiratory (cough and expectoration of sputum) shedding of the intact infectious virus. The monkeys in this year’s study simply died too fast, not allowing time for them to shed infectious Ebola particles. It goes without saying that monkeys which do not shed infectious Ebola particles cannot transmit Ebola to other monkeys. Had this year’s rhesus monkeys been infected by the nasal route, as was the case in a pig-to-monkey experiment in 2012, or if they had lived up to 13 days as in the 1995 study, allowing time for intact infectious Ebola virus to appear, and thus more closely matching human Ebola disease, then we may well have seen monkey-to-monkey airborne transmission of Ebola. The authors of this study concluded that:
“NHPs [non-human primates such as monkeys] are known to be susceptible to lethal EBOV infection through the respiratory tract [just like humans] putting the onus of the transmission on the ability of the source to shed infectious particles.”
We know that airborne transmission of Ebola occurs from pigs to monkeys in experimental settings. We also know that healthcare workers like Dr. Kent Brantly are contracting Ebola in West Africa despite CDC-level barrier protection measures against physical contact with the bodies and body fluids of Ebola victims, so it only makes sense to conclude that some -- possibly many -- of these doctors, nurses, and ancillary healthcare workers are being infected via airborne transmission. It makes perfect sense that sick humans, as they vomit, have diarrhea, cough, and expectorate sputum, and as medical procedures are performed on them, have the ability to shed infectious Ebola particles into the air at a similar or higher level compared to Sus scrofa (wild boar) in the pig-to-monkey study.

clear thinking on what makes an airborne and highly contagious disease a weapon - no fancy gimmicks required!

shtfplan |  The Centers for Disease Control and medical experts around the country say they have procedures in place to deal with Ebola and pandemics.

But according to one paramedic in Dallas, neither he or anyone else was told that the ambulance they were driving was the same one used to transport Ebola patient Thomas Duncan to the hospital.
A Dallas paramedic claimed he drove the ambulance that the US Ebola patient was transported in and that he was not contacted by anyone about the potential exposure. He claims he drove the ambulance sometime after the patient was transported. The Dallas Fire Department left the ambulance that transported Ebola patient Thomas Duncan to the hospital in service for at least 48 hours before putting it in quarantine on Wednesday. 
It is not known how many paramedics drove the ambulance during the 48 hour period or how many patients were transported.

The incident is the latest in a string of procedural breakdowns that included initially sending Duncan home from the hospital with antibiotics and failing to properly decontaminate the apartment in which he stayed during the onset of symptoms.

Officials continue to insist that America’s medical infrastructure is prepared to handle Ebola.
In about 21 days we’ll know if they are right.

People are already starting to panic. What happens in three weeks if this starts showing up in schoolchildren or other metro areas?  Fist tap Big Don.

advocates for marijuana and from springfield missouri...,

ajc |  Two days after a man in Texas was diagnosed with Ebola, a Missouri doctor Thursday morning showed up at Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport dressed in protective gear to protest what he called mismanagement of the crisis by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dr. Gil Mobley checked in and cleared airport security wearing a mask, goggles, gloves, boots and a hooded white jumpsuit emblazoned on the back with the words, “CDC is lying!”

“If they’re not lying, they are grossly incompetent,” said Mobley, a microbiologist and emergency trauma physician from Springfield, Mo.

Mobley said the CDC is “sugar-coating” the risk of the virus spreading in the United States.
Efforts to reach a CDC spokesperson for comments on Mobley’s criticism have been unsuccessful.

“For them to say last week that the likelihood of importing an Ebola case was extremely small was a real bad call,” he said.

“Once this disease consumes every third world country, as surely it will, because they lack the same basic infrastructure as Sierra Leone and Liberia, at that point, we will be importing clusters of Ebola on a daily basis,” Mobley predicted. “That will overwhelm any advanced country’s ability to contain the clusters in isolation and quarantine. That spells bad news.”

Mobley, a Medical College of Georgia graduate who had an overnight layover after flying to Atlanta from Guatemala on Wednesday, said that he feels that the CDC is “asleep at the wheel” when it comes to screening passengers arriving in the United States from other countries.

“Yesterday, I came through international customs at the Atlanta airport,” the doctor told The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. “The only question they asked arriving passengers is if they had tobacco or alcohol.”

Mobley is director of a free-standing emergency clinic in Springfield that specializes in workplace injuries. He has been an advocate of medical marijuana use, and formerly operated a clinic in Seattle that specialized in medical cannabis authorizations.

was there bioweapons chicanery afoot in new orleans?

myneworleans |  An early and discarded theory on the origin of AIDS was that that the virus mutated out of nowhere. Another theory centered on the creation of the virus by scientists working in a germ warfare lab. Others attributed its origin to contaminated monkey tissues used in making substandard batches of polio vaccine sent to Africa in the 1950s

In Dr. Mary’s Monkey, author Edward T. Haslam opines that AIDS originated from a botched experiment in a secret underground laboratory in New Orleans during the 1960s. A Tulane professor and Ochsner orthopedist experimenting with mutated monkey viruses was brutally murdered as part of the cover-up. A rouge CIA operative, later under the spotlight of Jim Garrison’s assassination probe, spirited the virus off to Haiti for a clandestine release that resulted in today’s AIDS pandemic.

The polio immunization theory fell by the wayside a couple of years ago. Scientists found old batches of the implicated vaccine in a laboratory freezer. It tested negative for DNA to all known monkey viruses and strains of HIV.

The origin of AIDS is now widely accepted by scientists. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) jumped from primates to humans. Many diseases jump from animals to people. West Nile, influenza and hepatitis B are common examples of viral diseases that originated in other species.

Recent work by virologists, evolutionary biologists and molecular geneticists genetically traced the HIV virus infecting humans to wild chimpanzees living in a Cameroon jungle. There may be no cure or vaccine to protect against AIDS but the mystery of its origins has been solved.

Thursday, October 02, 2014

layering that cover story on hella thick, too much, too soon...,

discovery |  The deadly virus responsible for the global HIV/AIDS pandemic emerged around 1920 in the city of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, according to new research that has relevance to the effort to understand how another deadly virus, Ebola, reestablished itself in West Africa.

The study, published in the journal Science, reveals that the HIV virus was already established and spreading in Africa long before the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention first took note of it. The CDC's first record of the illness occurred on June 5, 1981, when an unusual type of "pneumonia" was detected in five homosexual men from Los Angeles.

No one then knew that the deadly strain of the virus, which has since killed an estimated 39 million people, had already taken hold in the Congo some 60 years earlier.

"It seems a combination of factors in Kinshasa in the early 20th century created a 'perfect storm' for the emergence of HIV, leading to a generalized epidemic with unstoppable momentum that unrolled across sub-Saharan Africa," co-author Oliver Pybus, an Oxford University zoologist, said.

Lead author Nuno Faria, also from Oxford University's Department of Zoology, explained that "by the end of the 1940's, over one million people were traveling through Kinshasa on the railways each year." At the time, what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo was under Belgian colonial rule and experiencing steady urban growth

Faria and his team examined the genetics of 348 "HIV-1 group M" samples from the former Belgian Congo, and 466 additional samples from nearby regions. This particular viral strain, "M," has proven to be the deadliest in humans, but virologist Beatrice Hahn of the University of Pennsylvania explained to Discovery News that it represents just one of several different instances where the illness jumped from a non-human primate to people -- likely by the consumption or handling of bushmeat.

The researchers next compared the relatedness of the HIV genetic sequences to create phylogenies, or family trees. The scientists then calculated the rate at which the virus mutates to date the origin of each "branch" on the trees.

This reconstruction of the genetic history of HIV-1 group M revealed both the date and location of the epidemic's origins, placing Kinshasa at ground zero.

Prior research suggests that one or more people first contracted the virus from an infected chimpanzee in southeastern Ca

the establishment put out its cover story weeks ago...,

NYTimes |  There are two possible future chapters to this story that should keep us up at night.

The first possibility is that the Ebola virus spreads from West Africa to megacities in other regions of the developing world. This outbreak is very different from the 19 that have occurred in Africa over the past 40 years. It is much easier to control Ebola infections in isolated villages. But there has been a 300 percent increase in Africa’s population over the last four decades, much of it in large city slums. What happens when an infected person yet to become ill travels by plane to Lagos, Nairobi, Kinshasa or Mogadishu — or even Karachi, Jakarta, Mexico City or Dhaka?

The second possibility is one that virologists are loath to discuss openly but are definitely considering in private: that an Ebola virus could mutate to become transmissible through the air. You can now get Ebola only through direct contact with bodily fluids. But viruses like Ebola are notoriously sloppy in replicating, meaning the virus entering one person may be genetically different from the virus entering the next. The current Ebola virus’s hyper-evolution is unprecedented; there has been more human-to-human transmission in the past four months than most likely occurred in the last 500 to 1,000 years. Each new infection represents trillions of throws of the genetic dice.

If certain mutations occurred, it would mean that just breathing would put one at risk of contracting Ebola. Infections could spread quickly to every part of the globe, as the H1N1 influenza virus did in 2009, after its birth in Mexico.

Why are public officials afraid to discuss this? They don’t want to be accused of screaming “Fire!” in a crowded theater — as I’m sure some will accuse me of doing. But the risk is real, and until we consider it, the world will not be prepared to do what is necessary to end the epidemic.

In 2012, a team of Canadian researchers proved that Ebola Zaire, the same virus that is causing the West Africa outbreak, could be transmitted by the respiratory route from pigs to monkeys, both of whose lungs are very similar to those of humans. Richard Preston’s 1994 best seller “The Hot Zone” chronicled a 1989 outbreak of a different strain, Ebola Reston virus, among monkeys at a quarantine station near Washington. The virus was transmitted through breathing, and the outbreak ended only when all the monkeys were euthanized. We must consider that such transmissions could happen between humans, if the virus mutates.

the only thing between u.s. and a massive ebola outbreak is winter weather and one ebola infected sneeze...,

Sources Preparedness for Prevention of Ebola Virus Disease


US ARMY Says EBOLA = FLU in Airborne Stability, Needs Winter Weather To Go Airborne





Ebola Bodily Fluids Readily Weaponizable Using An Ultrasonic Humidifier

Ebola Emergency ZMAPP Production Rates & Costs

CDC's "Lesser Of Evils" Double Standard On Health Care Worker Protection Indicates They Expect a Large Ebola Outbreak In USA

CDC Warns Hospitals On EBOLA "CONTAMINATED AIR" and Directs use of "Airborne Infection Isolation Room"s

Inhalation Ebola: Governments Ready For World War Ebola

CDC Sees AIRBORNE EBOLA Transmission, Issues Guidance For Aircraft Flight Crews, Cleaning & Cargo Crews

 CDC is already evacuating DOUBLE the number of expected Ebola infected personnel at a rate of 7 doctors per month

bioweapon brings a preview of hell on earth to west africa...,

NYTimes |  MAKENI, Sierra Leone — “Where’s the corpse?” the burial-team worker shouted, kicking open the door of the isolation ward at the government hospital here. The body was right in front of him, a solidly built young man sprawled out on the floor all night, his right hand twisted in an awkward clench.

The other patients, normally padlocked inside, were too sick to look up as the body was hauled away. Nurses, some not wearing gloves and others in street clothes, clustered by the door as pools of the patients’ bodily fluids spread to the threshold. A worker kicked another man on the floor to see if he was still alive. The man’s foot moved and the team kept going. It was 1:30 in the afternoon.

In the next ward, a 4-year-old girl lay on the floor in urine, motionless, bleeding from her mouth, her eyes open. A corpse lay in the corner — a young woman, legs akimbo, who had died overnight. A small child stood on a cot watching as the team took the body away, stepping around a little boy lying immobile next to black buckets of vomit. They sprayed the body, and the little girl on the floor, with chlorine as they left.

As the Ebola epidemic intensifies across parts of West Africa, nations and aid agencies are pledging to respond with increasing force. But the disease has already raced far ahead of the promises, sweeping into areas that had been largely spared the onslaught and are not in the least prepared for it.

The consequences in places like Makeni, one of Sierra Leone’s largest cities, have been devastating.
“The whole country has been hit by something for which it was not ready,” said Dr. Amara Jambai, director of prevention and control at Sierra Leone’s health ministry.

in a crisis like this one, rick perry is definitely the "decider" you want on the job...,

dailymail | Texas governor Rick Perry reveals children from FOUR different schools have been exposed and 18 Americans could be infected 

Five students attended four different Dallas schools this week after possibly being in close contact with the Ebola patient over the weekend 

The Ebola patient was named today as Thomas Eric Duncan, who had traveled to the U.S. from Liberia on September 20 to visit family

Mr Duncan, a Liberian national, quarantined at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital since Sunday in a 'serious but stable condition

The children who came in contact with Mr Duncan are showing no symptoms and are now being monitored at home

The schools are on high alert with additional health and custodial staff as an added precaution Other children were taken out of one Dallas school by concerned parents

Mr Duncan arrived in U.S. on September 20 - after flying from Liberia via Brussels in Belgium - but did not develop symptoms until September 24

He attended Texas Health Presbyterian on September 26 - but was dismissed with antibiotics and 'not asked details about his travel history'

Mr Duncan may have contracted Ebola while helping carrying his landlord's seriously ill daughter to hospital in Liberia. She died the next day

if the virus is only spread thru direct contact with bodily fluids, how did 12 people at a funeral for an ebola victim come down w the disease?

sciencemag |   Two ScienceInsider reporters called in to the press conference, but there was so much interest from the media that they did not get a chance to ask a question. Here, however, are some of the questions they would like to have asked.
  • Q: Dr. Frieden, it sounds like the patient wasn't tested for Ebola when he first sought medical care, on 26 September, even though he had just arrived from a country with an Ebola epidemic. Why not? Did the health care provider who saw him know he had arrived from Liberia 6 days earlier?
  • Q: How many health care workers and how many others came into contact with the patient before he was isolated?
  • Q: You said the patient's contacts are now being monitored. Can you give some details about this? Does it include going to their homes and taking their temperature daily? Or do you communicate with them by electronic means, such as phone calls, text messages, and e-mails?
  • Q: Are contacts being told to isolate themselves from their friends and family while they are being monitored?
  • Q: Does the government have any legal authority to force potential contacts to cooperate if they don't want to? Are they free to travel?
  • Q: Has the house where the patient was staying been disinfected, and if so, how exactly?
  • Q: What experimental therapies are available now for the patient, should he want to use them? Would you recommend anything specific?
  • Q: Does the patient or his family members have an idea about how he got infected?
  • Q: Virologist Heinz Feldmann has described procedures at the airport in Monrovia as a "disaster" and said it was the most dangerous situation he encountered during his visit to Liberia. Could the patient have become infected at the airport? Is that possibility being investigated?
  • Q: What is the estimated number of people entering the United States each week who have recently been in one of the countries affected by the epidemic?
  • Q: The number of Ebola cases is roughly doubling every 3 weeks; CDC's own worst case-scenario says there may be as many as 1.4 million patients by 20 January. Should the United States and other countries prepare to see imported cases on a regular basis?
  • Q: The World Health Organization has raised the possibility that Ebola could become endemic in West Africa. If that happens, how should the United States deal with people traveling from these countries in the future?
  • Q: One more question, Dr. Frieden. The United States is paying a lot of attention to this single case right now. Do you think that will increase the amount of money and number of people the United States is willing to dedicate to containing the outbreak in West Africa?

Wednesday, October 01, 2014

tsa checks your temperature and your lunchbox for bushmeat - this is all....,

theatlantic |  The Washington Post's Todd Frankel described having an infrared thermometer gun pointed at his head in the Freetown, Sierra Leone airport, along with hundreds of other passengers. In some countries, individuals whose temperatures seem high later undergo a blood test for the virus.

But these temperature checks aren't always effective. In the Dallas case, the man left Liberia on September 19, had his temperature checked at the airport, and arrived in America on September 20. He only developed symptoms on the 24th, however, and he was isolated four days later. Patients are only contagious when they're symptomatic, so there's no risk the people on the flight with the man caught Ebola. There is, however, a four-day window in which he might have infected others in the U.S.

In July, an Ebola-infected man flew from Liberia to Nigeria, even though airport screenings were already in place, and he infected healthcare workers in Lagos. And of course, fevers are usually caused by flu and other illnesses that aren't Ebola.

Twenty different ports of entry in the U.S. have been equipped with quarantine centers that are on the lookout for passengers with Ebola-like symptoms. “If you’re a passenger on a plane and you say you’re sick, you will be met when you land by the CDC,” agency spokesman David Daigle told The New York Post.
At arrival gates, border protection officers keep their eyes peeled for passengers who show signs of fever, sweating, or vomiting. They also try to confiscate any monkey meat or other bushmeat that passengers might have in their luggage.

georgia guidestones updates...,

to keep it from spreading - tell the truth about it being airborne...,

dailybeast |  But what about Ebola? The Dallas case is breaking some of our ironclad assumptions. The CDC has a well-considered algorithm that places those returning from the three endemic West Africa countries—Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia—into a measure of extra vigilance if and only if the person has had exposure to a known case of Ebola. Per the press conference, the Dallas case had no such exposure. He was not a health-care worker treating patients, nor was he from a family battling active disease. Of course, more facts may emerge that contradict today’s story—but today’s facts, if they hold up, mean that yesterday’s assumptions are no longer correct. Liberia may indeed be enough of a hotbed of Ebola that anyone arriving from the area will need to be considered for extra vigilance.

More disturbing, though, is this: Infections follow basic rules. That’s what informs the confidence of public health experts. TB, for example, is spread when I inhale the exhaled breath of a person with active disease. Cholera and typhoid fever are transmitted when I ingest contaminated food or drink. And blood-borne infections like HIV, hepatitis B, and Ebola are spread after contacting infected blood or having sex with an infected person.

But even according to these basic rules, Ebola is slightly different in a way that remains obscure. HIV is not spread easily: The per-sexual exposure with an infected person is on the order of 1 in 100; a needlestick with blood from an infection person sustained by a health-care worker transmits infection in only 300 exposures.  Hepatitis B plays by the same rules, though the rates of transmission are about 10 times more frequent. In other words, the likelihood of catching HIV or hepatitis B from an infected person, even with a blood or sexual exposure, is quite low.

Exposures to Ebola, however, seem to leave no room for error. Although we lack carefully performed studies, Kent Brantly, the physician who developed the disease and was airlifted to Atlanta, seemed to have no gross exposure to the disease, though he worked on an Ebola ward. Ditto for Nancy Writebol the other American flown back in that dramatic first wave. According to reports, they were mighty careful at every step, but just not careful enough.

In contrast, it is said that absolutely no one working for Médecins sans Frontières, or Doctors Without Borders, has come down with Ebola, though they have been and are working cheek by jowl with the same patients, presumably because they are perfectly and methodically garbed and attentive 100 percent of the time, not 99 percent. So Frieden’s message to America surely is correct—we are 1,001 disasters away from an alarming national outbreak; our health-care systems are indeed quite sturdy.
But his message to those caring for the Dallas patient both in his home and now in the hospital needs a bit of punching up. For once, all those rules about assuring that masks fit and gloves (two pairs) are snug and gowns are tied and all the rest are deadly serious, as is the mechanical sequence of doffing the disposable garb, then washing hands carefully. This time, even in the freewheeling city of Dallas, the rules must be followed carefully, as if one’s life depended on it—because when dealing with Ebola, it does.

identify, profile, lockdown, don't play...,

nola |  Stanley Gaye, president of the Liberian Community Association of Dallas-Fort Worth, said the 10,000-strong Liberian population in North Texas is skeptical of the CDC's assurances because Ebola has ravaged their country.

"We've been telling people to try to stay away from social gatherings," Gaye said at a community meeting Tuesday evening. Large get-togethers are a prominent part of Liberian culture.

"We need to know who it is so that they (family members) can all go get tested," Gaye told The Associated Press. "If they are aware, they should let us know."

Ebola symptoms can include fever, muscle pain, vomiting and bleeding, and can appear as long as 21 days after exposure to the virus. The disease is not contagious until symptoms begin, and it takes close contact with bodily fluids to spread.

The association's vice president encouraged all who may have come in contact with the virus to visit a doctor and she warned against alarm in the community.

"We don't want to get a panic going," said vice president Roseline Sayon. "We embrace those people who are coming forward. Don't let the stigma keep you from getting tested."

Frieden said he didn't believe anyone on the same flights as the patient was at risk.

"Ebola doesn't spread before someone gets sick and he didn't get sick until four days after he got off the airplane," Frieden said.

last week, a 20% chance of a victim in the u.s. by january - ebola WINNING!

telegraph | The first person to be diagnosed with Ebola in America was initially sent home with antibiotics after doctors failed to recognise the symptoms of the deadly disease.

A desperate search has now been launched to find other people in Dallas, Texas who the man could have infected.
The patient had arrived in Dallas on a flight from Liberia and later presented himself at the hospital because he was feeling ill.
He was told to go home and take the antibiotics, but two days later his condition had deteriorated so badly that an ambulance had to be called.
He is now critically ill and in isolation at the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital.

The ambulance vehicle used to transport him has been quarantined.

Three paramedics who were sent to get him are being kept isolated at their homes and will be monitored for three weeks, the incubation period of Ebola, to see if they develop any symptoms.

Dr Edward Goodman, an epidemiologist at the hospital, said the patient was able to communicate and had been asking for food. He added: "There is no risk to any person in the hospital."

A specialist team from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has arrived in Dallas.